This page includes published papers and other references of interest, mostly on the subject of islet transplantation but also what we consider to be seminal or classic publications about diabetes, type 1 in particular. The links provided take you to 1) the paper itself, or 2) posts from The Sheet (blog) where the article is mentioned. Summaries, where included, are written by Scott R. King.

Published Research on the Islet Sheet

Requirements for Encapsulation Technology and the Challenges for Transplantation of Islets of Langerhans. Scott R. King, Randy Dorian, and Richard W. Storrs. Graft, October/November 2001, Volume 4, Issue 7.

An invited review by the inventors of the Islet Sheet setting out our approach and design criteria. It is our most cited publication. Read comments in The Sheet.

Preclinical development of the Islet Sheet. Richard Storrs, Randy Dorian, Scott R. King, Jonathan Lakey, and Horacio Rilo. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, November 2001, Vol. 944.

A report based on our presentation at a bioartificial organs conference showing our progress during our initial collaborations including large animals studies at University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Posters Published by Islet Sheet Medical

Since resuming active research in 2008, the Islet Sheet inventors have issued no major publications, but have prepared and presented several posters at conferences to provide progress reports to our colleagues in the islet transplantation field. They are listed in chronological order. 

Functional Evaluation of Alginate-sheet-encapsulated Islets: Advances to Transplant into Diabetic Porcine Model. L. Robles, R. Ahmad, M. Lamb, R. Storrs, M. Alexander, T. Zhou, R. Stahl, R. Dorian, E. Steward, S. King, J. Endres, R. Bergman, M. Ader, J. RT Lakey.

Prepared for the 48th annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Berlin, October 2012. Presents the first data from a study of pigs made diabetic and implanted with the Islet Sheet.

Vascular Remodeling in a Subcutaneous Site Secondary to Islet Transplantation and Biomaterial Implantation. Rahul Krishnan, Rajan Arora, Morgan Lamb, Ouwen Liang, Sean M White, Austin Moy, Rick Storrs, Randy Dorian, Scott King, Clarence Foster, Elliot Botvinick, Bernard Choi, Jonathan RT Lakey. Islet Sheet Medical, 2012.

Prepared for the 24th International Congress of the Transplantation Society in Berlin, July 2012. Presents evidence that the implanted Islet Sheet promotes a strong vascular response in surrounding tissues . Addresses the problem with encapsulated islets of making enough oxygen available for the islets to thrive. For more, see Scott King’s blog post.

Function and Viability of Human Islets Encapsulated in Alginate Sheets: In Vitro and in Vivo Culture. M. Lamb et al. Islet Sheet Medical, 2011.

Prepared for the 2011 IPITA conference in Prague to show in summary our encouraging results with the Islet Sheet in rat studies. For details, see Scott King’s blog post.

Another version of the same poster was presented at the 11th Annual Rachmiel Levine Symposium, “Advances in Diabetes Research,” at the City of Hope research center in Los Angeles, by its Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism. Find information on the next conference.

Transplantation of Islets Encapsulated in Alginate Sheet. Shiri Li, Michael Alexander, Morgan Lamb, et al. Islet Sheet Medical, 2010.

This study found that the Islet Sheet can control diabetes in rats made diabetic with a drug. Follow-up studies found that the rats were not entirely diabetic. For details, see Scott King’s blog post.

Analysis of Host Response and Durability of a Novel Non-Reactive Alginate Coating of Implants. Michael Alexander et al. Islet Sheet Medical, 2010.

A brief report demonstrating that our in-house alginate preparations are better than commercial sources.

Human Islets Encapsulated in Alginate Sheets Survive after 8 Weeks in the Subcutaneous Space of Rats. Morgan Lamb, Rick Storrs, Randy Dorian, et al. Islet Sheet Medical, 2011.

This study assessed in vitro function and viability of human islets encapsulated in an alginate sheet and implanted in the subcutaneous space of rats.

Publications by Islet Sheet Project Collaborators

Industry Review: Prospects in Diabetes Therapy. [download Prospects_in_Diabetes.pdf] Scott R. King. F. Eberstadt & Co., Inc., New York, October 3, 1980.

The first investment report on the diabetes industry. Read comments in The Sheet.

Islet Transplantation in Seven Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using a Glucocorticoid-free Immunosuppressive Regimen. Or follow this link. A. M. James Shapiro, MD, Jonathan R. T. Lakey, PhD, et al. New England Journal of Medicine, July 27, 2000.

This paper introduced the world to the Edmonton Protocol, a breakthrough in islet transplantation. The authors hypothesized that previous immune suppression drug regimes were toxic to islets and reported that seven of seven patients treated with islet implants remained off insulin for more than a year. Read comments in The Sheet.

Orchestration of Glucose Homeostasis Diabetes: From a Small Acorn to the California Oak. Richard N. Bergman. Banting Lecture 2006: 56:1480 (2007).

In his Banting Lecture Professor Bergman reviews his career research, including the development of the “minimal model” being used to evaluate the Islet Sheet. Read comments in The Sheet.

Multiscale requirements for bioencapsulation in medicine and biotechnology. Paul de Vos et al. Biomaterials, Vol. 30 (2009), 2559–2570.

The European Union has funded an initiative to define the requirements of encapsulation of biological material, led by Paul de Vos of the University Hospital Groningen in the Netherlands. Professor de Vos’s laboratory is collaborating on the Islet Sheet project. This Biomaterials article summarizes their progress.

Seminal or Historic Type 1 Diabetes Publications

The Internal Secretion of the Pancreas. F. G. Banting, MB and C. H. Best, BA. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 7:251 (1922).

The first report on perhaps the most important development in the history of diabetes therapy: the discovery of insulin.  At the time it was known that the pancreas produced the “anti-diabetic hormone,” structure unknown. It was named insulin because the source was the islets of Langerhans. Read comments in The Sheet.

The Effect of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression of Long-Term Complications in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 329: 977-986, No. 14, September 30, 1993. Or follow this link.

The final publication of the complete DCCT study, which definitively showed the clinical success of tight (or intensive) blood sugar control. Read comments in The Sheet.

Autologous Islet Transplantation to Prevent Diabetes After Pancreatic Resection. David C. Wahoff, MD, David E. R. Sutherland, MD, PhD, et al. Annals of Surgery 222:4 (1995).

The first type of human islet transplantation to eliminate the need for insulin injections was autologous islet transplantation—a milestone in the development of islet transplantation. Dr. Sutherland and his group review its development.

Banting Lecture 2009: An Unfinished Journey: Molecular Pathogenesis to Prevention of Type 1A Diabetes. George S. Eisenbarth, MD, PhD. Diabetes, Vol. 59, April 2010, 759-774 (address given June 7, 2009). © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.

The Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement Award is the American Diabetes Association’s highest scientific award and honors an individual who has made significant, long-term contributions to the understanding of diabetes, its treatment, and/or prevention. Dr. Eisenbarth, who received the Banting Medal in 2009, did much to develop our understanding of the autoimmune nature of T1D. Read comments in The Sheet. Also see the paper

Primer: Immunity and Autoimmunity. Massimo Pietropaolo, Julie M. Surhigh, Patrick W. Nelson, and George S. Eisenbarth. Diabetes, Vol. 57, November 2008 © 2008 by the American Diabetes Association.


Irvine scientist works on transplant to help diabetes patients. Susan Valot. NPR report on Jonathan Lakey's work on the Islet Sheet at UC Irvine, © 2011 Southern California Public Radio, October 13, 2010.

Read comments in The Sheet.